sitemap

Search
 

Home  Technology

Rawmaterial - Flavouring Products

HISTORY & DEVELOPMENT for Cocoa

The development of cocoa, chocolates, and confectionary over the centuries has been a remarkable. Due to the climatic conditions the cocoa tress are limited in areas. The chocolate products are originally prepared by the natives of Central America.

Until the early 1800’s the only product was a very fatty chocolate drink from the whole coca bean, sugar and spices.
In 1828 Houten invented the coca press which was free from coca fat from the bean. During the 1840’s fry and Cadbury made chocolate bars.

RAW MATERIAL
 Flour
 Soya Flour
 Starch Products
 Pouring Products
 Fats
 Sugar
 Egg Products
 Powdered Milk
 Emulsifiers
 Raising Agent

The American, Milton Hershey, used a special cultured-milk process and Cadbury developed crumb process. In 1900 Hershey established the Hershey chocolate company located in rich Pennsylvania country side where there were plentiful supplies
of fresh milk.

In 1945 The Association of Swiss Chocolate manufacturers was established. Many of the early Swiss names cited there are still associated with chocolate [products, including Suchard (1797-1884), Cailler (1796-1852), Sprungli (1816-1897), Lindt(1885-199). Henri Nestle (1814*1890) came in tro the chocolate industry. Without nestles development of condensed milk, Daniel peters would not have Invented milk chocolate.
 
Botany, Growing Areas, Cultivation:

The coca tree is a native of the dense tropical forests of the Amazon where it grows in conditions of semi shade, warmth, and highly humidity. The genus cocoa tree consists of over twenty species, but only T.Cacao is of commercial value it was naturally spread in Guyana, Mexico and later to the Caribbean islands.

The Mayas of the Yucatan and the Aztecs of Mexico cultivated cocoa long before its introduction to Europe, and Montezuma emperor regularly consumed a preparation called “Chocolatl” made by roasting and grinding the cocoa nibs.

Columbus first brought cocoa beans to Europe but only as curiosities. His fellow country man Don Cortes was the first to recognize their commercial value as a new drink, and he sent back to Spain cocoa beans and recipes for preparing chocolate. The Spaniards added sugar to recipe and the drink gained in popularity. They then introduced cacao in to Trinidad. Eventually the trees grown in other West Indian islands and in the Philippines

South America and the West Indies remained the major suppliers of cocoa beans until 1900. To this today, the countries of West Africa supply most of the world’s requirements, although Brazil is rapidly becoming a major producer

After being introduced in to Europe by the Spanish, the popularity of the chocolate drink spread to Italy, Holland, France in the middle 1600’s.  In the 1700’s, some improvement occurred and chocolate or rather, cocoa products began to mad3 in factory sale. The Fry factory in Bristol, England, started production in 1728.

The COCOA Tree:

Botanically, the term “Cacao” refers to the tree and its fruit (pods and seeds). The tree can only be cultivated within fairly narrow limits of altitude, latitude and humidity. Wood (1985) notes that the cultivation of 75% of the worlds cocoa lies within 8 degrees of either side of the equator. The optimum growing temperature is between 18 degrees and 32C. The rain fall is preferably between 1,500 and 2,000 mm per year. The cacao tree will grow to a height of 20 to 30ft and require s some shade from larger forests.

From the time the seedling reaches a height of 3 to 5ft it throws out 3 to 5 branches. Many flowers are produced but only a small number become pollinated and developed in to pods. These pods mature in to 5 to 6 months. The pod is botanically, a “drupe” and attains a length of 6 to 10 inches by 3 to 4 inches diameter.

Diseases:

In one survey by, Pad wick (1956), losses attributed to disease were stated to be approaching 30 percent. One of the most serious cases was the swollen shoot disease that swept through Ghana and, to a lesser, Nigeria in the years. Trees generally die abut three years of infection. Viruses present in many host trees and are transmitted to cocoa trees by mealy bugs, of which there are several species. The most effective methods of control were to remove infected trees and to breed resistant strains. The removal of the infected trees has had the greatest beneficial effect.

Another fungus disease specifics to cacao is witches broom (Crinipellis perniciosa), which originated in the Amazon area and spread to the west Indies. It causes distorted shoots or ‘brooms’ and affects flowers. Witches broom can be controlled by systematic cutting out of the broom and burning. Other fungal diseases of importanc4e are Monila, Diplodia pod rot, and Ceratocysists wilt.

Pests:

Entwistle(1972) has recorded that more than 1500 different insects feed on Cacao. The most damaging and widespread pests are the insect group known as capsids, the most important species which are Sahlbergella singularis and Distantillea theobroma. These insects are about half an inch long. For the insects very successful control was obtained by the use of BHC sprays applied by Knapsack sprayers or, for large-scale operation, by gasoline-driven machines.

 Fermentation and Drying:

A good flavor in the final cocoa or chocolate is related closely to good fermentation, but if the drying after fermentation is retarded. The chemical processes involved are not entirely fermenting reactions and the changes that occur in the combined process of fermentation and drying are some times referred to as cutting.
With heap fermentation, 500 to 600 lb of beans is formed in to a flat cone on banana or plantain leaves. Fermentation lasts from 5 to 6 days. Fermentation boxes are made in variety of shapes and sizes. Holes are provided in the base to allow the liquefied pulp to drain way.. It is important in the fermentation to have sufficient beans in the heap or box.

Chemical changes during Fermentation:

During the fermentation and drying processes, the unfermented wet beans taken from the pod lose about 65 percent of their weight, assuming the final optimum moisture content of 6 % is attained.

Variation, Problems, Experimental Procedures:

While fermentation is largely carried out satisfactorily by the pile or box method, Variations do occur that can lead to an unsatisfactory final product. In some areas, the beans, after removal from the pods, are transported wet to the fermentary. If this journey is prolonged, an uncontrolled fermentation may start.

Drying:
           
After fermentation the beans are place in the shallow trays to dry. In some growing areas where the main harvest coincides with the dry season, sun drying is adequate as long as the seeds are covered during rainstorms or at night, and under these conditions they are dry enough for transport and storage.

There are many designs in dryer they are
Samoan Dryer:  This is simple in construction and is used in small farming communities.
Buttner dryer: This is the only continuous dryer that has been used for cocoa beans.
Lister Dryer:  This machine, consisting of large diesel engine and fan, is used for drying Hay and Grain.
Platform Dryers: Dryers of this type may employ standard machinery used for other products.

Storage and Transport of Cacao Beans:

In many Cacao-growing areas, methods of transport are still primitive but it is the aim of the producer to get the beans from the farm to the boat quickly as possible. In areas of high humidity, well-dried beans will soon pickup moisture again. For this the workers recommended using polythene liners for the sacks, and trials.

During World War II, much cacao was stored in tropical-port wear houses. More recently, bulk container transport has been tried. Here, condensation problems arise, and special construction with grilles are used.

Chemical composition of Cocoa beans:

The general composition of cocoa beans from various sources is similar and the primary analytical composition.

Chocolate Flavor and Aroma:

The essential role played by correct fermentation and drying of the cacao beans in developing the ultimate flavor of the chocolate has been emphasized. The true chocolate in finally developed by the roasting processes.

The fundamental stages in the formation of chocolate aroma begin with the production of flavor precursors during the tropical fermentation and these are changed at the bean-roasting stage into compounds typical of the true chocolate flavor

Nonvolatile Components of Chocolate Flavor:

If the Volatile flavors are removed from cocoa liquor by distillation methods and the residual material in to chocolate, the resultant product still has the main characteristics of chocolate, though perhaps some what milder.

 

 Wheat
 Common Salt
 Flavouring Products
 

CONTACT US

  Wafermatic
  32B, Technocrat Industrial   Estate Balanagar,
  Hyderabad-500018,INDIA

+91-9959000380

Fax: +91-040-2340 2682
Email: info@wafermatic.com
 
 SUBSCRIBE TO OUR NEWSLETTERS